Organic Matter Of Mine Water And Mining Waste
Bachurin, Boris Alexsandrovich
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation
1. Organic compounds are one of the poorly studied species of pollutants in wastes and effluents of mining industry. It is established that along with natural organic compounds characteristic of mined minerals, various technological reagents used at the ore dressing and enrichment stage are an additional source of organic contamination.
2. To assess the nature of organic contamination of the hydrosphere in mining regions, wastes and effluents of coal-mining, potash, copper-ore, chromite and bauxite industries, with different content and composition of natural organic compounds in the extracted raw materials and with different technology of ore dressing and enrichment, were studied. The laboratory modeling of interaction processes in the systems «wastes - water» was performed, what allowed to evaluate the particularities of entering of organic pollutants into the hydrosphere due to the leaching of waste dumps. The main objects of research were bitumoides extracted from rocks and waters by organic solvents. The study of their composition was carried out using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry which allow to judge about the presence of individual organic compounds.
3. The results of the performed studies have shown that upon interaction between wastes and water the destruction of organic-mineral rock complexes, transformation of organic structures and increase of their geochemical mobility take place. The composition and formation regularities of leachable complexes are determined by the geochemical situation which is formed as a result of the impact of exogenous factors on the stored waste. It was proved experimentally, the interaction of waste with water is accompanied by transformation of the composition of organic compounds contained in the waste: an increase of the content of oxygen-, sulfur-, nitrogen-containing structures along with the subordinate role of hydrocarbon compounds in the composition of the water-dissolved organics is observed. The presence of a whole spectrum of new compounds in the water-soluble organics is found. These compounds were absent in the initial organics composition and are, apparently, the products of their biochemical transformation.
4. The study of the bitumoides individual compositions has allowed to identify a number of organic compounds reflecting the specific nature of the extracted raw materials and the technology of its enrichment, that makes possible to consider them as geochemical markers ("fingerprints") in identifying sources of organic pollution of the hydrosphere in mining areas.